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No. 1 through 11 Wisconsin's Forestry Best Management Practices For Water Quality. This series of 11 Forestry Fact sheets is based on Wisconsin's DNR Publication FR-093 95, Wisconsin's Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality. Each Fact Sheet summarizes the best management practices (BMPs), from one chapter in the DNR publication that should be used for a specific forestry practice or situation.


No. 1 Why Do We Need BMPs?
No. 2 Do I Need A Permit?
No. 3 Planning For Forest Management
No. 4 Fuels, Lubricants, Waste And Spills
No. 5 Riparian Management Zones... RMZs
No. 6 Forest Roads
No. 7 Timber Harvesting
No. 8 Site Preparation And Tree Planting
No. 9 Prescribed Burning And Wildfire
No. 10 Using Forestry Chemicals
No. 11 Wetlands

No. 14 Wisconsin Nursery Directory: Retailers of Seedlings and Transplants of Common Forest Tree Species
Developed from survey of over 200 nurseries, this directory lists, by county, Wisconsin nurseries that retail seedlings and transplants of the most common forest tree species in the state. A chart indicates relative quantities of each species grown and sold annually for each nursery. This is the only comprehensive forest tree species nursery directory available in the state.

No. 16 Casualties, Disasters and the Income Tax: Some Tips for Woodland Owners
This paper defines the conditions that can give rise to a casualty or disaster loss, illustrates how to calculate the tax deductible portion of the loss, and provides some tips on how to document and report such losses. This information is provided in an effort to help interpret current tax laws. It is not intended to substitute for the advice of a qualified legal or tax advisor.

No. 38 What Will a Forest Tree Earn?
This report answers the questions of when to harvest a tree, and what is a tree's "rate of interest." The included assumptions, earning table and example are all designed to simplify the process of estimating return on harvest.

No. 39 What's a Forest Tree Worth?
In this fact sheet, a set of charts are presented which may be used to estimate a tree's current value, future value, ratio of future value to present value, and the rate earned.

No. 41 A Brief Look At Tree Planting
This fact sheet summarizes the necessary steps in planning, planting and maintaining a plantation. It includes drawings of the three hand-planting techniques which are most commonly used in Wisconsin.

No. 42 What Is a Board foot?
The first in a 4-part series, this fact sheet defines board foot, one of the most commonly used measurements in forestry, and describes the use of the measure, some of the problems in calculating it, and how to estimate it based on log length and diameter.

No. 43 What Is Basal Area?
The second in the series, this paper describes, with the use of diagrams and tables, the concept of basal area, how it is used and how to measure and calculate it.

No. 44 What Is a Cord?
A cord is a measurement applied to stacked roundwood such as firewood. This fact sheet enables the reader to understand how much wood is in a cord, and to estimate how many cords are in a stack of wood from measurements of stack height, width and length.

No. 45 What Is a Chain?
Last in the forestry terms fact sheet series, this paper describes the basic unit of measurement which foresters use for horizontal distances, the chain. The derivation of the term, as well as how it relates to other more commonly used land measures, is discussed.

No. 48 Getting the Most from Your Woodland
This fact sheet stresses the importance of understanding why you own land and what you want to do with it. It describes the two-step process of setting goals and preparing a management plan.

No. 50 The Managed Forest Law Tax Program [LAW CHANGED; REVISIONS PENDING]

The Managed Forest Law (MFL) delays full tax payment, by substantially reducing annual taxes, on privately owned forest lands until income is generated by a timber harvest. This fact sheet discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the program to help landowners decide if MFL is a good deal for them. 

No. 51 Walnut Tips--Top Pruning
This fact sheet discusses some of the problems in achieving optimal seedling establishment and how the process of top pruning can help. It covers the techniques of, and reasons for, top pruning.

No. 53 When To Harvest Timber: Now...Or Later?
This publication looks at the financial implications of the timing of timber harvests. If a harvest is postponed, will the increased size and value of the trees outweigh the cost of postponing the harvest? With an example, worksheet and detailed instructions, When To Harvest Timber will help you answer this question for your individual situation.

No. 55 Species For Christmas Trees in the Lake States
Using factors such as site location, soil type, time allotted for tree care, and market conditions, this paper guides the landowner in choosing the best species to plant for Christmas tree production.

No. 57 Walnut Tips--Retired Cropland Plantings
Walnut plantings on old croplands require special measures to ensure successful establishment. This short fact sheet discusses grass control and warns of non-essential pruning.

No. 58 Walnut Tips--Soil and Site Selection
This fact sheet discusses optimum soil properties, site factors and climate factors for walnut plantations. Instructions are given for obtaining soil analyses and soil survey maps.

No. 60 Processing Trees to Lumber for the Hobbyist and Small Business
A great deal of money can be saved, and a greater sense of achievement realized, if projects are made from lumber sawn and dried "in house", rather than from purchased lumber. This publication contains the designs for a simple solar kiln; explains the processes of obtaining logs, sawing lumber and preparing lumber for drying; and offers advice on maintaining optimum lumber drying rates.

No. 61 Energy at the Sawmill: Conservation and Cost Reduction
This paper examines industrial energy usage patterns and presents more than 75 economical ways to reduce electricity consumption in a sawmill/dry kiln operation.

No. 62 Energy at the Furniture, Millwork and Cabinet Plant: Conservation and Cost Reduction
This paper examines industrial energy usage patterns and presents more than 75 economical ways to reduce electricity consumption in a furniture, millwork or cabinet plant.

No. 64 Causes and Cures for Stains in Dried Lumber: Sticker, Chemical, Iron & Blue Stains
Tackles common stains in dried lumber. It covers the basics of white wood drying, gives practical cures for a variety of staining problems, and includes kiln drying schedules for light-colored woods.

No. 65 Techniques for Equalizing and Conditioning Lumber Gives the basics and specific operating procedures for equalizing and conditioning lumber.

No. 66 Growing Wisconsin Trees From Seed Guide to collecting, storing, preparing and planting seed of many common forest trees of Wisconsin.

No. 67 Drying Rewetted Kiln-Dried Lumber With prompt attention, dried lumber that has been rewetted, either by prolonged high humidities or exposure to liquid water, can quickly and easily by redried to previous conditions, without much risk of staining, checking or warping, using the procedures outlined in this fact sheet.

No. 68 Causes and Cures for Warp in Drying This publication covers the physics of wood shrinkage and discuss each the of three types of warp--cup, bow and crook--in terms of its causes, likely locations in a log from which lumber might suffer from it, and preventative measures which can alleviate the warping problem, where possible.

No. 69 Calculating the Weight of Lumber With the procedures and equations in this publication, the average weight of 1000 board feet of lumber can be calculated for any species.

No. 70 Ideas for Increasing Sawmill Profitability Several means for increasing sawmill profitability are presented in this paper. Each requires time and effort to implement; some require large capital investments while others required very little cash. With these ideas, you should be able to invest a little and make a lot!

No. 71 Determine Your Basis... And Keep More Timber Income Knowing your timber's worth at the time you acquired it, your "timber basis", can reduce the amount of taxes you owe on timber sale income. This publication explains how to use your basis when filing income taxes if you did not do so at the time of acquisition.

No. 73 Selected Sawmilling and Drying Publications A bibliography of over 40 useful publications listed under the headings of "Saws", "Sawmills", "Marketing", and "Drying/Storage".

No. 74 Guidelines for Grading Hardwood Logs  This paper details the potential benefits of employing the USDA Forest Service factory log grading system. The rules are described and illustrated, and grading procedures are explained in detail, including the definition and treatment of defects.

No. 75 Hiring a Consulting Forester Describes benefits of using a consultant, typical services provided, how to find a consultant and what to ask them. Also includes a sample contract.

Herbicides for Forest Management We no longer publish this information, but it is available on the Internet from the DNR at this link. The latest information on appropriate herbicides for use in forestry operations. Four tables indicate effectiveness of various herbicides on different species of weeds, brush and trees; a comparison of the various herbicides (timing, application, etc.); and a summary of herbicides useful in site preparation and tree planting.

No. 77 Timber Harvest Effects on Nongame Birds Compiles the latest research information relating to harvest effects on nongame birds. Compares relative bird abundance for different stages of forest growth in northern hardwoods.

No. 78 Forest Succession An important concept of forest ecology, plant succession, in terms of forest vegetation is explained. A description of the major successional stages is given, and the impact of succession on our forest management decisions is addressed.

No. 79 Tolerance of Tree Species Tree species differ in their tolerance of shade and other competitive factors. This ranges from species that are very tolerant (such as sugar maple) to species that are very intolerent (such as aspen). Foresters use their knowledge of species tolerance to help guide virtually all management decisions. This publication contains a chart showing the tolerance level of all major Lake States forest tree species.

No. 80 Hardwood Lumber Kiln Schedules A compilation of dry kiln information for over 60 hardwood species. The information was assembled from numerous sources and incorporates current market requirements for the various species.

No. 81 How to Manage Northern Hardwoods This publication describes the species that comprise the northern hardwood forest type and how they should be managed. Information about the values and uses, regeneration and growth characteristics, and hazards and pests is also included. Even- and uneven-aged management options are discussed, and considerations for wildlife and aesthetics are also covered.

No. 82 How to Manage Red Pine Describes the red pine forest type, associated species and growth characteristics. Techniques for establishing new stands and important insect and disease problems are discussed. Management practices for young stands and harvesting of mature stands are covered. Wildlife and aesthetic considerations are also highlighted.

No. 83 Forest Management Strategies to Minimize the Impact of the Gypsy Moth Potential damage to your woodland from the gypsy moth is covered, as well as the tree species it likes to eat. A number of forest management options and prescriptions (including thinning, salvage cuts and stand conversion) are detailed for poor, medium and good sites. These options will help your forested areas be less susceptible to gypsy moth attack and to rebound better should an infestation occur.

No. 84 How to Manage Aspen Describes the two species of aspen and some of the associated species. The importance of aspen's intolerance is discussed, along with the short life-span caused by various pathogens. The importance of clearcutting for sustaining our aspen forests is covered in detail, along with proper techniques to insure the clearcut successfully regenerates more aspen. The importance of aspen for wildlife habitat is also discussed.

No. 85 How to Mange Jack Pine Describes the management techniques for jack pine, a very intolerant pioneer species typically found on dry sandy soils. When mature, even-aged stands of jack pine are commonly harvested by clearcutting, although the shelterwood and seed-tree methods are sometimes used. Selection cutting usually does not work because jack pine grows poorly or not at all in the shade of other trees. Regeneration comes from natural seedfall, direct seeding or by planting seedlings. Information on wildlife and aesthetics is also included.

No. 86 How to Manage White Pine Characteristics of white pine stands are covered. Details of the major pests, tip weevil and blister rust, along with management implications are explained. Regeneration of new white pine stands and the techniques for tending young stands are described. The shelterwood system of harvest, and how it can aid regeneration of white pine, is covered.

No. 87 Caring for Your Woods: A 10-Step Plan For Landowners Designed to guide first-time forest managers, this 4-page publication discusses 10 important steps that a landowner should take: get professional help, conduct an inventory, determine your cost basis, establish your goals, develop a written plan, learn about forest management and prescriptions for different tree species, learn about tax information., develop a marketing strategy if you harvest timber, and check into the others types of assistance available to woodland owners.

No. 88 Guide for Using Portable Electric Moisture Meters on Lumber Describes the two types of portable electric meters that are widely used today... pin-type meters and non-pin or dielectric meters. Detailed procedures for proper use of each meter type with lumber, molding and other wood products are also covered.

No. 89 Guide to Using the Oven-Dry Method for Determining the Moisture Content of Wood The oven-dry method is the most accurate means for determining moisture content of lumber or other solid wood products. However, reliable estimates are obtained only when the proper procedures are followed. This publication describes the proper steps for selecting your samples, weighing the moisture sections, oven drying the samples and calculating moisture content.

No. 90 Walnut Tips--Choosing the Right Seed for Your Woodland Many Wisconsin walnut growers are keen to plant superior-quality trees in their woodlots. However, adaptability to Wisconsin's environmental conditions is always a concern. This publication summarizes the results of an 18-year trial in southwestern Wisconsin, and provides some suggestions for choosing seed to plant in the state.

No. 91 The Pros and Cons of Southern Appalachian White Pine in Wisconsin The Southern Appalachian states (North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee) are known for their fast-growing white pine. This publication highlights the benefits of planting Southern Appalachian seedlings in this state.

No. 92 The Wisconsin Forest Landowner Grant Program This new grant program offers Wisconsin's private landowners cost-sharing opportunities for a multitude of forestry and conservation related practices.

No. 93 Wood Use and Society We all consume incredible volumes of wood each year.  This paper puts our wood use in perspective by demonstrating how much we depend upon wood.  Our wood consumption is explained through common sense examples based on global, national, and state consumption levels.

No. 94 Understanding the Sample Timber Sale Contract. The timber sale contract is the most important document associated with the sale of timber. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Wisconsin Woodland Owners Association, and the University of Wisconsin-Extension have developed a Sample Timber Sale Contract. This Forestry Fact includes both the Sample Contract and explanatory information.

No. 95 Marketing Urban Logs Forestry Fact No. 95 examines the market for urban logs and lists a number of forest products companies in Wisconsin that have expressed interest in purchasing urban logs.

No. 96 Wisconsin's Kiln Directory Wisconsin has over 120 companies with lumber kiln facilities, which play an important role in Wisconsin's economy.  Forestry Fact No. 96 provides a current listing of Wisconsin's kiln facilities and the services that they offer.

No. 97 What is my Timber Worth? And Why? Forestry Fact No. 97 reviews some of the factors that can influence the price you receive for your timber.  

No. 98 750 Square Foot Solar Lumber Dry Kiln Provides a basic blueprint for building a small solar lumber dry kiln.

No. 99 The Managed Forest Law: What Constitutes a Mandatory Practice?  [LAW CHANGED; REVISIONS PENDING]
Describes the mandatory practices that MFL program participants may be required to implement, depending on their management plan.

No. 100 The Managed Forest Law: Filling Out a Cutting Notice  [LAW CHANGED; REVISIONS PENDING]MFL program participants are required to file a cutting notice and report form with the DNR whenever harvesting takes place on lands enrolled in the MFL program. This publication provides guidance for completing these requirements.


No. 101 The Managed Forest Law: How Does the Program Impact Existing and Future Structures?  [LAW CHANGED; REVISIONS PENDING]
Reviews some of the details relating to the impact of lands enrolled in the MFL program on existing and future buildings or other structures.

No. 102 The Managed Forest Law: Transferring Land  [LAW CHANGED; REVISIONS PENDING]

Participants in the MFL program can transfer property to other landowners at any time during their MFL contract. This publication outlines the conditions and procedures for making transfers.

No. 103 Wisconsin Wood Residue Brokers Wood residues have become a valuable raw material for a number of Wisconsin companies. This publication lists Wisconsin companies currently engaged in the wood residue market.

No. 104 The Managed Forest Law and Property Tax Revenues to Townships Summary of Study Findings. Recent changes and state law have altered the relationship between the MFL and town-purpose property tax revenues. This Forestry Fact summarizes those effects.

No. 105 How to Hire a Contractor for Land Management Activities.  This publication explores the hiring of contractors and the resources which exist to help landowners hire just the right person for the land management task.

No. 106 Factors Influencing Timber Prices for Landowners.  When a landowner begins the timber sale process, a primary questions is often “How much can I expect to get for my wood?” This publication aims to help landowners understand the factors behind the bids they will receive for their wood.

No. 109 Emerald Ash Borer Insecticide Treatment Guide. A brief overview of insecticide options for the treatment and protection against EAB.

[No. 110 Contracting with a Consulting Forester]. Working with a private consulting forester is a great way to acieve your goals for your woodland. Like any other contractor you work with, it is a good idea to get all of your agreements to protect yourself and the contractor. This document provides some tips for doing so.

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